Disaster: the choice of Philadelphia’s death and life in 1793

on November 6, 2015, is worth americans celebrate the day. This is the day the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization in general assembly held in the ancient city of Arequipa, Peru, awarded the world heritage city of Philadelphia. Philadelphia also became the first city to receive the honour. Before this, the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization has been selected in the global 266 world heritage city, and American city was selected. Philadelphia city to become the world’s heritage, for the American meaning is self-evident. Philadelphia & ndash; & ndash; Important witnesses of the war of independence, the birthplace of the American republic, the declaration of independence, in 1787 the U.S. constitution important historical documents signed here, such as the obverse, the liberty bell is in the city is an important symbol of the American revolution. In the early days after foundation, it’s temporary capital, economic and cultural center in the United States. However, in the city enjoy the bustling, but almost suffered the fate of the abandoned. DetailPic

Philadelphia today

Philadelphia: the American city of the future

in the Atlantic ocean in southeastern Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia on maps, Philadelphia is embedded in the interior, but it is in the Delaware river), ocean-going ships sailing along the river can reach the port of destination. The unique geographical environment, makes an important port city on the Atlantic coast of Philadelphia. The city was founded in 1681, the then minister of king Charles ii of England to repay the old William & middot; Bing (William Penn) debt, will today in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania territory to old son William William & middot; Bing. After obtaining the king William & other; Charter & throughout; Soon after, then put forward: & other; Hope in the most convenient places along the Delaware river, establish a good & lsquo; Navigation & rsquo; And & lsquo; Health & rsquo; Throughout the city &; , the history of Philadelphia gold medalists.

Philadelphia location

William personally design blueprint for the development of the city. As a Quaker church, William had suffered from religious oppression, he hopes that he built the city can be tolerant to absorb the denominations, become love, free city model. When British London trade prosperity, but crowded population, disease prevalence. William thought, the development of cities not only to help the economy, should also be beneficial to the health of the residents. He will design city streets into orderly grid, also modelled on the English villages and towns, urban housing scattered layout, and is surrounded by garden green land. He wants to Philadelphia residents from the plague. William to the idea of Philadelphia development is good. To the American revolution, the Philadelphia not only because of its important role in the triangle trade name, and then the center of the north American political culture. The war of independence in Philadelphia is revolution the leadership of the town, known as the American revolution, the & other; Free cradle & throughout; . DetailPic

Philadelphia grid pattern

in the 1790 s, Philadelphia residents tolerance, perseverance, and rich and enterprising spirit, the urban population is second to North America, but its population size is almost the same with the largest, New York City, urban development and display scenes of prosperity, become the important business of both sides of the Atlantic and immigration center in Philadelphia. Not only that, the time of the Philadelphia in national politics still unlimited scenery, walking in the residents of the city streets, occasionally found in Washington, Jefferson and Hamilton, the founding fathers in their side. From 1790 to 1800, the city as the capital of the United States for ten years. At this point, almost all americans will feel rich, free and vitality of the city. People will look forward to in the heart, is the future of the young country city of Philadelphia.

fever: a god of death hangs over city

Philadelphia boom may end up due to its outstanding performance in the field of economy. City merchants global view, they use the right of and traditional business, and to develop ocean trade, and the Caribbean, Western Europe, and even China’s international trade. In many international trade routes in the 1790 s, particularly frequent trade with the Caribbean in Philadelphia. The Caribbean sea state were considered to be one of the world’s most prosperous colonies, although this rich is behind the French colonists on the local slave depredations. Haiti outbreak in 1791 slaves against the French colonists revolutionary movement. The seemingly distance and Philadelphia anti-colonial movements, but almost brings to the city.

in the spring of 1793, carrying more than 2000 French colonialists and slave ships, fleeing bloody mess Haiti island, to the capital of the United States at that time & ndash; & ndash; Philadelphia. Once the busy port of Philadelphia, as the French influx of refugees, become more crowded. These French desperate refugees, despite U.S. business Allies’ largesse, but it is still in shock. They are telling americans Haiti turmoil, chaotic scene at the same time, also describe how the local plague repression of France’s combat effectiveness, and in the narrator is someone is infected with the plague. Citizens of Philadelphia easy listen about French refugees & other; Fleeing story & throughout; , is not aware of the danger is quietly approaching. Philadelphia as a typical American metropolis, is no stranger to the popularity of infectious diseases. Historically, smallpox, diphtheria, measles and cholera had landed in the port city. However, the attack Philadelphia & other; Yellow fever & throughout; But very different, and even many doctors don’t know anything about the disease in the city. It was destined to will bring unexpected to the prosperity of city.

in August 1793, the disease first appeared in the Philadelphia Delaware river poor communities. In fact, when various epidemic swept through the Philadelphia, underprivileged groups living quarters are often city’s first and most serious area of an outbreak. They due to tight or health concept is not strong to give up treatment, causing the outbreak by municipal authorities are hard to detect. A population of about 45000 people in Philadelphia at that time, most people live in seven blocks along the Delaware river. In mid-august, outbreak quickly spread to the whole city. The patient’s high fever is not retreated, headache, flush on face, neck, conjunctival congestion, yellow skin and eyes chilling, late a nosebleed, until coma, hematemesis, shock and death. In late August in Philadelphia for yellow fever there were 325 deaths. Since then, the disease continued high. According to statistics, in October one day a day of up to 119 people are buried in Philadelphia. With the daily death toll is rising, the government had to request the church stop the death-knell for the dead man, in order to avoid public panic. It is estimated that from August 19 to November 15, deaths accounted for 10% of the population of the city of Philadelphia to 15%. From August to November, the whole city was shrouded in the fear of death.

1793 Philadelphia epidemic distribution

Philadelphia residents fear stems from a fear of death, not only but also from the medicine to the unknown of the epidemic. 18 th-century Philadelphia is the center of the American medical, whether franklin created America’s first hospital & ndash; & ndash; Pennsylvania hospital, drawing or prestigious college of physicians in the city. In spite of this, the medical profession on the cause of yellow fever, route of transmission, as well as the method of treatment is still a lack of authority and effective explanation. Most of the doctors in the city to cope with the symptoms of patients with terror. Doctors and even around the etiology and treatment of yellow fever argued for a long time. One theory about the cause of yellow fever, with William? Currie, think the disease by merchant ships from overseas to enter. Another theory famous doctor Benjamin & middot; Rush for that disease is generated by the city dirty environment & other; Malaria & throughout; Caused by. Merchant ships quarantine for longer periods, the former advocated for the prohibited area ships to dock; The latter advocated improving urban environmental sanitation. For the treatment of yellow fever, profession is also points do two pie, from origin deeply traditional French medical doctor will think regimen is the best treatment; Rush represents more local doctor’s opinion, he insisted on & other; Said fluid balance & throughout; , the use of bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea and other Hero therapy & throughout; . In fact, the medical dispute has weakened the doctor group in public authority. Not only that, Philadelphia, as an important stage of American politics at that time, yellow fever and even become a tool for political struggle between the parties. The federalists, represented by Hamilton for protection and development of domestic manufacturing industry, support for overseas merchant system of strict quarantine; While represented by Jefferson’s democratic republican for agricultural nation, and city environment urges the origin of yellow fever. In the face of increasingly severe outbreak and city profession, political divisions, Philadelphia citizens to go from here?

19 th-century map of yellow fever disease evolution

who choose to leave? Who stay?

when death comes, there’s nothing in the face of the doctor’s, witnessed the government flapped, Philadelphia residents began a life and death choice & ndash; & ndash; To leave or stay. In terms of the situation, escape from the control is the death of a city that is the most sensible thing to do, but it also means that will lose their most familiar homes and property. September epidemic spreading rapidly, many citizens doesn’t even locked the door and flee. Although the city has been stationed in the harbour is responsible for the prevention of health officials, and the doctor of sick sailors and passengers carried out by special treatment, but due to lack of funds and effective treatment, public health set up the basic port can be evaded. Outbreak after a month still have come from the west Indies epidemic area of the ship at the dock to dock. In early September, a called Joseph & middot; He’s state employee died of yellow fever infection on the stair steps. The terror of death, to state and federal officials in the office for the first time feel the epidemic was so close. On September 6, the governor of Pennsylvania government legislation to grant m, emergency disposition, the governor after get power do first thing in the closed state legislature, so that government officials from Philadelphia. On September 10, announced the closure of the federal government, Washington, escape from Philadelphia. By the end of September, the federal government, state and city government, most government officials from Philadelphia. This is the political center of the American political service more than 20 years time was cast aside by the us government. According to the chronicle of scholars Matthew & middot; Carey, estimates from the end of August to November, 1793, has more than 17000 people have fled the city.

the government abandoned the Philadelphia, but quite a number of ordinary citizens may not be able to leave it. Because & other; Escape & throughout; Will mean a huge road locate spending and other cities after the cost of living. Most urban residents is poor. They can only use some methods to protect their looks is not working. They will fit into a pocket and garlic hat, or will be soaked camphor oil sack over his head. The lack of government management make the city lost order soon. Desperate to escape the thief got in public housing, wantonly stolen property; The dying patient abandoned by his family in the street; And parents sick orphans double after the death of a large number of city streets. Once a busy market, and now a cold. Urban economy crumble.

if the poor never left Philadelphia is due to the fate of the helpless, so some people choose to leave, the display of loyalty to the city. The mayor of Philadelphia Matthew & middot; Kelly clarkson and citizens a face to face with the disease. The government already paralyzed because of officials fleeing, Philadelphia, clarkson at this time is short. He will be all kinds of non-governmental organizations in the city as a save an important force in Philadelphia. After the outbreak, some social groups in the city of spontaneous compensated for the absence of city government. & other; The poor guardian & throughout; Society for citizens to rescue patients with their money, buy medical supplies for the poor. null

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